Floor Joists Spans

floor joists spans

    floor joists
  • (floor joist) joist that supports a floor

  • (Floor joist) A horizontal structural member used in repetitive patterns to support floor loads.

  • A wooden (or steel) beam which directly supports flooring in common with other joists (or a ceiling lining as a roof joist) Types of floor joists generally used by Ecoframes are:- SOLID TIMBER- Treated softwood floor joists  at 400, 450 or 600 mm centre spacings.

  • A team of people or animals, in particular

  • (span) the complete duration of something; "the job was finished in the span of an hour"

  • A matched pair of horses, mules, or oxen

  • A rope with its ends fastened at different points to a spar or other object in order to provide a purchase

  • (span) the distance or interval between two points

  • (span) cross: to cover or extend over an area or time period; "Rivers traverse the valley floor", "The parking lot spans 3 acres"; "The novel spans three centuries"

floor joists spans - Invitation to

Invitation to the Life Span

Invitation to the Life Span

Check out a preview.

KATHLEEN STASSEN BERGER’s bestselling textbooks are un-matched for the engrossing, culturally inclusive way they communicate the essential science of human development. But that does not even begin to convey what the Berger experience is: What makes these bestselling textbooks so distinctive is the unmistakable presence of KATHLEEN STASSEN BERGER on every page, in writing that continually draws on the author’s teaching and family life to demonstrate a remarkable understanding not just of the field, but of students’ questions, their concerns, and their lives.

The distinctive, definitive BERGER touch is evident throughout her new textbook, Invitation to the Life Span. This brief, original, 15-chapter textbook was created from page 1 to address the challenges teachers and students face when covering the entire life span in a semester (or even a quarter!). The hallmark Berger qualities are all here—the relatable presentation of research, the inclusive approach to world cultures, the study help that builds critical thinking and observational skills, the outstanding media and supplements—and all held together with Berger’s skill in bringing students and the science together.

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Kimball Museum-Interior

Kimball Museum-Interior

Designer: Louis I Kahn
Address:3333 Camp Bowie Boulevard
Fort Worth, TX 76107-2792
Museum tour:https://www.kimbellart.org/MuseumInfo/Architecture/Tour-Building.aspx

The Museum was the last work completed under Kahn's personal supervision before he died on March 17, 1974, in New York, on his way home from Dhaka and Ahmedabad. It is now generally regarded as Kahn’s crown jewel.This museum opened in 1977, after Pellecchia and Meyers, Architects, completed it. Both of them had been project architects for Kahn.
The museum consists of sixteen narrow rectangular vaulted elements laid out in three sections, with six vaults side to side on both ends and four in the middle. Six foot wide flat-roofed channels separate each vault, and at the two places where the three sections meet are mirrored glass slits which Kahn used to express the non-structural joint. "Ornament is the adoration of the joint."1 There are three levels: the upper level which houses gallery space, and auditorium, library, book store, refreshment area and three courts; the lower level contains offices, laboratories, shops, shipping and receiving. A full basement houses the mechanical and electrical distribution systems. The sloping site allows public access on the west at the upper level, primarily a pedestrian entrance, and also access on the east side at the lower level from the parking lots. On the west side the middle elements are pushed back to allow and entry court. The first vaults on the north and south wings are actually open porticos. On the east side the bottom middle vault is opn to create an entry.
Each vault is roofed by 23 x 100 foot clear span cycloid shells of post-tensioned, poured in place, reinforced concrete with an as-cast surface. The vaults are each supported on four 2 x 2 foot corner columns. Calcium lead sheets sheath the shells. Vaults covering interior spaces have a longitudinal 2-1/2 foot slit at the apex braced by concrete struts every ten feet. Lower edges of the shell support seven foot reinforced concrete channels with soffits which house the air and electrical distribution systems. Two way post-tensioning is used in the upper level floor slabs. The lower level is simply poured in place concrete slabs with joist support construction.

On the exterior Kahn used diamond-sawn, travertine infill walls with a reinforced concrete core between the columns. He also used travertine veneer for court paving, steps, and wall copings. Double insulating glass is used on the gallery level; Plexiglass covers the large slits. Doors and frames, windows and bollards are of mill-finish stainless steel. On the interior travertine is again used for infill walls, stairs, balustrades and portions of the floor. The remaining gallery flooring, the cabinet work and interior doors and frames are of quarter sawn white oak. Mill finished stainless steel is also used for the elevators, kitchen and handrails.

The emphasis of this building is the manipulation of natural light for the purpose of creating a dynamic environment.

"We knew that the museum would always be full of surprises. The blues would be one thing one day; the blues would be another thing another day, depending on the character of the light. Nothing static, nothing static as an electric bulb, which can only give you one iota of the character of light. so the museum has as many moods as there are moments in time, and never as long as the museum remains as a building will there be a single day like the other." (2)
Kahn cut the three courts on the top floor at right angles to the vaults to open up to the sky and celebrate the different qualities of light. the separate courts, the Green Court, Yellow Court and Blue Court were named such in anticipation of the kind of light that their proportions, foliation and reflective surfaces would enhance. Of course the vaults each have slits at the apex that work as a natural light fixture, letting in light to be reflected onto the sides of the vaults and down the walls, giving the room a glow of silver, and the end walls fall just short of the vault revealing narrow slices of the sun.

"In a 1987 analysis focusing on the building's structure and expression, Peter McCleary described the vaults as a structural hybrid, "neither pure vault nor pure shell", basing his evaluation on the use of both stiff edge-beams and cables within the concrete. The skylight at the apex removes material at the point of maximum compressive stress. "The structural behavior of the roof [is] beyond the intellectual and visual comprehension of most architects and engineers," said Mc Cleary, rejecting published explanations. But he also reported Kahn's own priorities, conveyed to him in conversation between the two during construction. Kahn told him that "the quality of light and place in the then partially completed museum was sufficiently beautiful that, for the moment, he was willing to sacrifice the trut

Cloud n Bridge

Cloud n  Bridge

I stood on the Bridge at midnight,
And gazed at the waters below,
And thought of the fanciful dreams that
From the brains of our Councilors flow.

Then I thought of the quick intuition,
Which these schemes had engendered and said,
“Will these schemes ever come to fruition?”
Then I quietly stood on my head.

For I’d looked at the question sideways,
And from both sides of the town,
Taking careful account of the tideways,

But never from upside down.
So I‘ve got a new angle of vision,
As bright and as fresh as wet paint,
Which will take off the general attention?

Away from the New Market Saint
Up my sleeve I’ve another red herring,
“The Scare of the Bidyadhari Silt”,

Which will merrily keep the ball rolling?
Ere The Bridge on the Hooghly is built.

-Diogenes, in the “Englishman”
(Appeared in The Calcutta Municipal Gazette dated 11 th July 1925)

Bridge Details

Brief Details

Bridge type : Suspension type Balanced Cantilever

Central span 1500 ft between centers of main towers

Anchor arm 325ft each

Cantilever arm 468ft each

Suspended span 564ft

Main towers are 280ft high above the monoliths and 76 ft apart at the top

Bridge deck width 71 ft with two footpaths of 15 ft either side

Other features of the Bridge

All members of the super structure comprise built up riveted sections with a combination of high tensile and mild steel

Between towers bridge deck hangs from panel points in the lower chord of the main trusses with a series of hungers(39 pairs)

Road way beyond the tower is supported on ground leaving anchor arm free from deck loads

Bridge deck comprises 71 ft carriage way and 15 ft footway projecting either side of the trusses and braced by a longitudinal fascia girder.

More about the Bridge

The deck system consists of cross girders hung between pairs of hungers with pinned connection.

Six rows of longitudinal stringer girders span between cross girder.

Floor joists supported transversely on top of stringers.

They support a continuous pressed steel troughing system.

Over which deck concrete is laid out.

Joint System of Bridge (Expansion Joints)

Longitudinal expansion and lateral sway movement of the deck are taken care of by expansion and articulation joints.

There are two main expansion joints, one at each interface between the suspended span and the cantilever arms.

There are expansion joints at the towers and at the interface of steel and concrete structures at both approach.

Articulation Joints

There are total 8 articulation joints.

3 at each of the cantilever arms.

2 in the suspended portions.

They divide the bridge into segments with vertical pin connection between them to facilitate rotational movements of the deck.

Camber and Traffic clearance

Bridge deck has longitudinal ruling gradient of 1 in 40 from either end

They are joined by a vertical curve of radius 4000 ft.

Cross gradient of deck is 1 in 48 between kerbs and central 4.9mtr. is level to provide tramway housing channel in between troughing.


The main tower is founded with single monoliths which are 55.31 x 24.8 m in plan with 21 chambers

Monoliths at Calcutta and Howrah side are founded 31.41 m and 26.53 m in below ground level respectively.

Minimum headroom in carriageway is 5.8 m

Freeboard for river traffic is 8.8 m


floor joists spans

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